At the time of the British withdrawal, 565 princely states were officially recognised in the Indian subcontinent, apart from thousands of taluqars, zamindaris and jagirs. In 1947, princely states numbering 555 covered 48% of area of pre-Independent India and constituted 28% of its population.
The most important states had their own British Political Residencies:
Hyderabad, Mysore and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu & Kashmir and Sikkim in the Himalayas, and Indore in Central India. Gun-salutes were often given for personal distinctions of the ruler rather than the importance of the state and varied from time to time. The most prominent among those – roughly a quarter of the total – had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was honoured by receiving a set number of gun salutes on ceremonial occasions, ranging from nine to 21. Rulers of salute states entitled to a gun salute of eleven guns and above received from the British the style of His/Her Highness; while the Nizam of Hyderabad had the unique style of His Exalted Highness.
The princely states varied greatly in status, size, and wealth; the premier 21-gun salute states of Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir were each over 200,000 km2 in size, or slightly larger than the whole of Great Britain. In 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16 million,, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of slightly over 4 million,
comparable to that of Switzerland. At the other end of the scale, the non-salute principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 km2 with a population of just below 3,000. Some two hundred of the lesser states had an area of less than 25 km2 (10 mi2). At the time of Indian independence in 1947, Hyderabad had annual revenues of over Rs. 9 crore (roughly £6.75 million/$27.2 million in 1947 values, approximately £240 million/$290 million in 2014 values), and its own army, airline, telecommunication system, railway, postal system, currency, radio service and a major public university; the tiny state of Lawa had annual revenues of just Rs. 28,000 (£2100/$8463 in 1947 values, £73,360/$89,040 in 2014 values).[
The era of the princely states effectively ended with Indian independence in 1947. By 1950, almost all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan. The accession process was largely peaceful, except in the cases of Jammu and Kashmir (whose ruler opted for independence but decided to accede to India following an invasion by Pakistan-based forces), Hyderabad (whose ruler opted for total independence in 1947, followed a year later by the police action and annexation of the state by India), Junagadh (whose ruler acceded to Pakistan, but was annexed by India). and Kalat (whose ruler opted for independence in 1947, followed in 1948 by the state’s annexation
These islands in the east of Papua New Guinea saw its first European visitor Pedro de Queiros of Portugal in 1606 followed by the Frenchman Louis de Bougainville in 1768.
New Hebrides, named for the Hebrides Scottish archipelago, was the colonial name for the island group in the South Pacific Ocean that now is the nation of Vanuatu. Native people had inhabited the islands for three thousand years before the first Europeans arrived in 1606 from a Spanish expedition led by Pedro Fernandes de Queirós. The islands were colonized by both the British and French in the 18th century, shortly after Captain James Cook visited the islands.
The two countries eventually signed an agreement making the islands an Anglo-French condominium, which divided the New Hebrides into two separate communities: one Anglophone and one Francophone. This divide continues even after independence, with schools teaching in either one language or the other, and with different political parties. The condominium lasted from 1906 until 1980, when the New Hebrides gained their independence as Vanuatu.
Ceylon, Commemorative issue 2500 years of Buddha, 5 rupee, Silver 1957 UNC Commemorative issue
Buddha Jayanthi 2500th Anniversary
An adaptation from the Anuradhapura Moonstone. The numeral 2500 at the centre with Flower petals around in inner annulus, next a procession of elephant, horse, lion and bull (2 sequences). next a procession of sixteen geese, with lotus flowers hanging from their beaks.
Note:These coins are popularly referred to as the Buddha Jayanthi coins
Sandakada pahana, also known as Moon-stone, is a unique feature of the Sinhalese architecture of ancient Sri Lanka. It is an elaborately carved semi-circular stone slab, usually placed at the bottom of staircases and entrances.
Engraver: Bernard Sindall
A design based on the Jasmine flower surmounted by a Lotus flower. The value in Sinhalese and the year of issue 1957 is superimposed at the center. The value FIVE RUPEES in English on left and Tamil on right and in Sinhalese `Sri Lanka’ at the apex and the anniversary `Buddha Jayanthi’ at the bottom.
Abyssinia rulers take their origin from King Solomon. Menelik I, also known as Ebna la-Hakim (“Son of the Wise”[) ) was the first Solomonic Emperor of Ethiopia, who is traditionally believed to be the son of Solomon of ancient Israel and Makeda, the ancient Queen of Sheba. Menelik is believed to have ruled around 950 BC, and tradition credits him with bringing of the Ark of the Covenant to Ethiopia, following a visit to Jerusalem to meet his father.
King Solomon intended to send one son of each of his nobles, and one son of each temple priests with Menelik on his return to his mother’s kingdom. Menelik is supposed to have made a replica of the Ark to take with him on his mission. Upon the death of Queen Makeda, Menelik assumed the throne with the new title of Emperor and King of Kings of Ethiopia. The Solomonic dynasty ruled Ethiopia through 225 generations, except for a few interruptions, for three thousand years.
The Abyssinian Emperor Menelik II (1844 – 1913) was baptized as Sahle Maryam, his birth name being Negus of Shewa (1866–89). He was later raised to the status of Nəgusä Nägäst (King of Kings) from 1889 to his death. Earlier at the zenith of his rule in 1898 Menelik had expanded his territory and created a modern empire, thus restoring the ancient Ethiopia to its past glory of Axumite Empire which was one of the four most powerful kingdoms of the ancient world.
Menelik’s victory over the Italian invaders at Adwa in 1896 earned him great fame. Colonial Italy was defeated resoundingly by Ethiopia in one of the greatest battles in the history of Africa. This victory over Italy at the Battle of Adwa came at a time when almost all of Africa was colonized by European powers. Emperor Menelik is credited with rallying his fellow Ethiopians behind him to fight back fiercely enough so as to deliver an unimaginable victory against the so called powerful and mighty forces of a European army.
In 1889 Menelik proclaimed that the territories north of the Merab Melash (modern Eritrea) did not belong to his rule as the land was not peopled by Abyssinians, but by other tribes such as Adals, Bejas, and Tigres. This is probably the reason he ceded Eritrea to the Italians.
As the 20th century approached, most of Africa had been carved up among the European powers. But the young Republic of Liberia on the west coast of the continent and the Ethiopian Empire in the strategic Horn of Africa were still free. The newly unified Kingdom of Italy was a relative newcomer to the colonial scramble for Africa. Italy already held the African territories, Eritrea and Somalia. Both these states were in an impoverished state and in proximity to the more fertile and rich Abyssinia on the Horn of Africa.
Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in 1922 with a grandiose intent to create a new Roman Empire and was on a predatory watch over the world including Africa. His target was Abyssinia (Ethiopia), sandwiched between two small Italian colonies Eritrea and Somalia
Abyssinia at this time, ruled by Haile Selassie, was a member of the League of Nations, created after World War I to maintain peace by solving international disputes without resorting to war. Britain, France, and Italy were members of the League. If a member was attacked by another country, the League was supposed to come to its aid, but in fact the League lacked the strength needed to back this mandate.
Throughout the summer of 1935, Mussolini amassed troops on the Abyssinian border, and in October 1935 he launched a full invasion’ Selassie appealed to the League for help but the League’s intervention was too slow and weak. Mussolini conquered Abyssinia, creating the Italian East African Empire.
The ruler Haile Selassie was born in 1892 as Tefari Makonnen and became governor of Harar, a city in Ethiopia in 1911. In 1928 he was crowned king and ruler of Ethiopia. On November 3 1930 Selassie appeared on the cover of Time magazine as “Man of the year” and one of the Top 25 Political Icons in history. Writing about Haile Selassie, TIME stated, the King of Kings, Conquering Lion of Judah, Elect of God. (All were used to describe Haile Selassie) ruled as Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930.
An year later in 1931 he introduced the first constitution of Ethiopia. In 1935 when Italy invaded Ethiopia after a gruesome battle for 5 years Selassie went into exile.
Finally before the fall of Italy in 1941 during the Second World War Allied East African Forces forces retook Ethiopia. On January 18, 1941 Haile Selassie marched in the East African Campaign against Mussolini’s occupation.
In 1955, in an attempt to modernize the country, Selassie granted a new constitution with more rights for his citizens. In 1963, he presided over the first meeting of the Organization of African Unity In 1972. Selassie was ultimately deposed in a organized military coup by people who were discontented with his regime. However Selassie’s contribution to African solidarity earned him fame as one of the reformists in emerging African political scene.
— ANTON SEBASTIAN (@AntiquesInterna) July 24, 2016
The Japanese occupation of the Philippines occurred between 1942 and 1945, when the Empire of Japan occupied the Commonwealth of the Philippines during World War II. The invasion of the Philippines started on 8 December 1941, ten hours after the Japanese attack on the Pearl Harbour.
Earlier in preparation for war, on July 26, 1941, General Douglas MacArthur had brought the 12,000 strong Philippine Scouts under his command with the 16,000 American soldiers stationed in the Philippines. Even these combined forces were poorly trained and equipped for an adequate defence of the islands against a Japanese invasion.
The attack on the Philippines was coordinated ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbour in Hawaii. As the American aircrafts were entirely destroyed on the ground, lacking air cover, the American Asiatic Fleet in the Philippines withdrew to Java on December 12, 1941.
Japanese troops landed at the Lingayen Gulf on December 22, 1941 and advanced across central Luzon towards Manila. On the advice of President Quezon, General MacArthur declared Manila an open city on December 25, 1941 and removed the Commonwealth government to Corregidor. The Japanese occupied Manila on January 2, 1942.
The final Battle of Manila commenced on 3rd February 1945 and was a major event in the Philippine campaign of 1944-45 during World War II, fought by the American and Filipino forces against the Empire of Japan in Manila. This one-month battle culminated in the massacre of over 100,000 civilians and complete devastation of the city. In the process of ending the three years of Japanese military occupation in Philippines (1942–1945) battle destroyed architectural and cultural heritage of the city dating back to its foundation. General Douglas MacArthur emerged as the victor in the campaign to re-take Philippines.
Australia, Merino Ram
A breed of sheep for wool introduced by Elizabeth MacArthur generated £ 55,000.000 for Australia, more than any of its other resources in 1930. By 1940 Australia held the largest sheep population in the world, 123 million
Ceylon, Parākramabāhu I (reign 1153-1186), Lion Copper Massa Coin only 12 known to exist. James Princep (1799-1840) calls altogether a unique perverted art
Gabriel Prosser (1776-1800), an enslaved African American blacksmith elevated himself by learning to read and write. Having born into a slave family and learning to be a blacksmith he was regarded as “a fellow of great courage and intellect above his rank in life” by his mates. As Gabriel neared the age of twenty, he stood “six feet two or three inches high” with a long and “bony face, the stuff that war heroes are made of. He organized a slave revolt intending to march on Richmond, Virginia in the spring of 1800. However two of the slaves betrayed him to their owner and his plan was foiled. Gabriel paid the ultimate price for trying to free himself and his people from slavery. Gabriel turned fugitive, but not for long before he was captured and hanged with his two brothers and 23 fellow slaves. Alerted by this incident with no precedence, Virginia and other state legislatures passed several restrictions on blacks as well as prohibiting their education, assembly, and hiring out of slaves, in order to restrict their chances to learn and to plan similar rebellions. Thus was the travesty of slavery and liberty in early America.
Slave Trade for 350 years.
12.5 million Africans forced aboard European and American slave ships.
10.7 million survivors of the Middle Passage disembarked in the New World.
— ANTON SEBASTIAN (@AntiquesInterna) April 7, 2016
All the colors within the rays in the sun turn to magic in the rainbow. Together these shades join to light the world, feed the plants and give meaning to day and night so that man can toil and rest. Without the sun there would be no day. But he too must take rest, hence the moon to sooth us from the demands of the Helios. India is the sun with all its shades of culture, language and religions blending as one to make India what it is today. Pregnant with 54 clans and tribes it is a wonder that the mother India holds herself self together to challenges within herself and from the outside.
— ANTON SEBASTIAN (@AntiquesInterna) April 5, 2016
José Julián Martí Pérez (January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895), popularly known as Jose Marti, is a Cuban national hero and revolutionary as well as writer in Latin American literature. His writings and political activity, became a symbol for Cuba’s bid for independence against Spain in the 19th century, He wrote about the threat of Spanish and US expansionism into Cuba. The Spanish-American War put an end to the European threat but risk still remains from the USA. José Martí was killed in battle against Spanish troops at the Battle of Dos Ríos, near the confluence of the rivers Contramaestre and Cauto, on May 19, 1895. After his death, one of his poems from the book, “Versos Sencillos” (Simple Verses) was adapted to the song “Guantanamera”, which has become the definitive patriotic song of Cuba.
— ANTON SEBASTIAN (@AntiquesInterna) April 5, 2016