The Mexico City founded by the Aztecs in 1325 became the dominant city-state of the Aztec Triple Alliance, formed in 1430 composed of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. Tenochtitlan had enormous temples and palaces, a huge ceremonial centre, residences of political, religious, military, and merchants until it fell prey to the Spaniards who were stunned by the beauty and splendour of city in 1519.
In 1810 Father Manuel Hidalgo makes the first call of independence and loses his life to the Spaniards. Spanish viceroy is forced to sign the Treaty of Córdoba, marking the official beginning of Mexican independence in 1821. Mexico was captured by U.S. forces during the Mexican-American War in 1846, and a treaty was signed on February 2, 1848 whereby the Rio Grande became the southern boundary of Texas, and California and New Mexico are ceded to the U.S. The U.S. agrees to pay $15 million as compensation for the seized land, which amounts to half of Mexico’s territory.